Espionage is a complex topic that can have far-reaching consequences. It involves spying on an enemy for commercial or military purposes. It can also involve industrial espionage, which is the theft of trade secrets.
The Espionage Act criminalizes 흥신소 activities that are considered disloyal during wartime. These activities include obtaining defense-related information with the intent to harm the United States and obtaining code books, signal books, photographs, blueprints, and other documents for America’s enemies.
Industrial espionage is a common threat to the business sector. It can include theft of intellectual property such as manufacturing processes, pricing information and locations of production. It also includes stealing research and development, corporate strategies, policies, plans and marketing information. The theft of industrial secrets can lead to significant economic loss. It can also be used to rig bids for government contracts. In addition to hacking and breaches, industrial espionage can also be perpetrated by disgruntled employees.
These crimes are notoriously difficult to estimate. Reported data are flawed because some organizations are reluctant to report these incidents and others may not even know that they are victims. Moreover, they are often count 흥신소 ed against other crimes (cyber-breaches and hacking) when they are reported. Furthermore, a large percentage of incidents are never reported. This special edition aims to fill a small gap in research on these under-reported crimes.
Although espionage has been around for millennia, cyber technology has made it easier to steal secrets quickly and silently. This makes it particularly challenging for intelligence agencies to combat the threat. The papers in this issue offer insights into the various methods employed by hackers to steal sensitive information. Some are laughably low tech, like dumpster diving or crashing investor meetings. Others are more sophisticated, including the use of botnets, a type of malware that can be used to attack websites or networks.
Cyber espionage, also known as cyber spying, is the intentional penetration of computer systems to steal information and intellectual property. This information can be used to gain a competitive advantage for rival businesses or governments. Hackers use a variety of techniques, such as social engineering, malware dissemination, advanced persistent threat (APT), watering hole assaults, and spear phishing to penetrate sensitive networks.
The most common targets of cyber espionage include large corporations, academic institutions, and think tanks. However, hackers can target individuals as well. In fact, a recent report found that Russian hackers were targeting politicians and other public figures in multiple countries.
For example, in April 2022, hackers breached the Telegram accounts of Ukrainian government officials and then attempted to steal data from those accounts using spyware. Similarly, hackers exploited a vulnerability in the Log4Shell tool to access systems that manage power grids and other critical infrastructure in Ukraine. In other incidents, hackers targeted the municipal public address systems in Jerusalem and Eliat, triggering air raid sirens throughout both cities. In December 2022, Human Rights Watch reported that Iran-linked hackers were conducting a well-resourced cyber espionage campaign against activists, journalists, and diplomats in the Middle East.
In a typical supply chain attack, threat actors compromise a business partner or vendor to gain access to sensitive information. This is often done by embedding backdoor code into goods or services that the target company already uses. This is a popular method for stealing industrial secrets because it is hard to detect and prevent.
Military espionage is a type of intelligence collection conducted by members of the armed forces. This involves collecting information that would benefit the military, such as weapons secrets and strategies. This information is typically obtained through human sources (agents) or technical means, like hacking into computer systems. If you’re accused of committing an act of espionage, it’s essential to contact a military defense attorney as soon as possible.
The use of military spies has been widespread since the early 20th century. By the outbreak of World War I, all major powers had developed sophisticated structures for training and handling spies. In addition, the figure and mystique of the spy had grown dramatically in public perception.
Historically, the main source of military intelligence has been human resources, or HUMINT. This includes overt collection of publicly available information, such as attending scientific and professional conferences, and clandestine recruitment of human sources. Until 1995, this activity was carried out by separate elements of each military department. Today, it’s consolidated under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
Some countries have developed sophisticated espionage operations, including China and Russia. Others, such as Iran and Syria, have more limited capabilities but still pose a threat to their neighbors. Nation-state attacks have also become increasingly common, such as the recent $81 million cyber heist by hackers known as Lazarus and Slingshot APT.
Economic espionage involves the clandestine acquisition of proprietary economic information, often at a fraction of its true cost. This type of espionage is typically state-sponsored and has national security implications. The information obtained is used to advance foreign economic goals and displace US businesses in global markets. It is also known as the “chicken-and-egg problem.”
Economic spionage can occur in a variety of ways, from bribery to blackmail and technological surveillance. It can even be a result of a disgruntled employee who moves to a competitor and steals valuable information. However, the espionage can also be more subtle and difficult to detect. It can take the form of buying satellite images to spy on a competitor’s parking lot or paying a private investigator to walk around a trade show to collect information.
When it comes to economic espionage, the most common perpetrators are foreign governments and military entities. These organizations are motivated by a desire to advance their own economic and technological capabilities at the expense of US companies. In response, the US government has enacted legislation to protect American business interests. The Economic Espionage Act, passed in 1996, criminalizes the theft of trade secrets by a foreign government or instrumentality. The statute defines a trade secret as information that derives independent economic value from not being generally known to, and not being readily ascertainable through proper means by, the public. The penalties for committing economic espionage are steep. A conviction for violating the Economic Espionage Act carries a prison sentence of up to 15 years and a fine of up to $5 million.